The classification of bites are broken up into three main categories: Class I, II, and III.
Class 1: Class I is a normal relationship between the upper teeth, lower teeth and jaws or balanced bite.
Class II: Class II is where the lower first molar is posterior (or more towards the back of the mouth) than the upper first molar. In this abnormal relationship, the upper front teeth and jaw project further forward than the lower teeth and jaw. There is a convex appearance in profile with a receding chin and lower lip. Class II problems can be due to insufficient growth of the lower jaw, an over growth of the upper jaw or a combination of the two. In many cases, Class II problems are genetically inherited and can be aggravated by environmental factors such as finger sucking. Class II problems are treated via growth redirection to bring the upper teeth, lower teeth and jaws into harmony.
Class III: Class III is where the lower first molar is anterior (or more towards the front of the mouth) than the upper first molar. In this abnormal relationship, the lower teeth and jaw project further forward than the upper teeth and jaws. There is a concave appearance in profile with a prominent chin. Class III problems are usually due to an overgrowth in the lower jaw, undergrowth of the upper jaw or a combination of the two. Like Class II problems, they can be genetically inherited.
It is not sufficient to categorize orthodontic malocclusions on the basis of a classification of the teeth alone. The relationship with other craniofacial structures must also be taken into consideration.
Class 1: Maxillary-Mandibular Dental Protrusion — teeth: This is an example of a dental malocclusion that may require the removal of teeth for correction.
Maxillary-Mandibular Dental Retrusion — teeth: This is an example of a dental malocclusion that may be treated with expansion rather than removing teeth.
Class 2: Maxillary Dental Protrusion — teeth: This malocclusion may require the removal of teeth.
Mandibular Retrognathism — jaws: The lower jawbone has not grown as much as the upper jaw. This example of a Class II malocclusion demonstrates the need for early growth guidance.
Maxillary Dental Protrusion — teeth
Mandibular Retrognathism — jaws
These Class malocclusions are more difficult to treat due to the skeletal disharmony and may require orthognathic surgery in conjunction with orthodontic treatment.
Class 3: Mandibular Dental Protrusion — teeth: The lower teeth are too far in front of the upper teeth. This malocclusion is treated with orthodontic procedures which may require the extraction of teeth due to the dental protrusion.
Mandibular Prognathism — jaws: The lower jaw bone has outgrown the upper jaw. This malocclusion is more difficult to treat due to the skeletal disharmony and may require orthognathic surgery in conjunction with orthodontic treatment
Crowding is the lack of space for all the teeth to fit normally within the jaws. The teeth may be twisted or displaced. Crowding occurs when there is disharmony in the tooth to jaw size relationship or when the teeth are larger than the available space. Crowding can be caused by improper eruption of teeth and early or late loss of primary teeth.
Crowding should be corrected because it can:
Extra space can be created by expansion of the arches or extraction of teeth. Once space is created, braces will eliminate crowding and align the teeth. Correction of crowding can help prevent dental decay and periodontal disease by improving the ability to remove plaque from the teeth.
Spacing (the opposite of crowding), is an excess of space for your teeth which results in gaps between your teeth. This generally occurs when the teeth are smaller than the available space. Spacing can also be caused by protrusive teeth, missing teeth, impacted teeth or abnormal tissue attachments to the gums.
Spacing should be corrected because it can:
The spaces can be closed by moving the teeth together and properly aligning them within the arch.
Deep bite is when the top front teeth cover mor than 50% of the bottom front teeth. Sometimes the bite is so deep that the bottom front teeth actually hit the roof of the mouth when the child closes. This is called an “impinging” deep bite. Deep bite is usually associated with jaw disharmonies, such as Class II or Class III.
Open bite is the opposite of deep bite. Open bite is when the top front teeth do not even touch the bottom front teeth upon closing. Open bite is commonly caused by some type of habit, such as thumb sucking, or tongue thrust. It can also be caused by jaw growth problems. Anterior open bite is when the front teeth do not touch. Posterior open bite is when the back teeth do not touch.
Impactions can be caused by improper positioning of the developing tooth bud. This can cause the tooth to fail to erupt into the mouth. Impactions can also be caused by early loss of primary teeth or crowding of teeth. Wisdom teeth are the most commonly impacted teeth. Canines and premolars can also be impacted.
This problem should be corrected because it can:
Usually the impacted tooth is exposed over the course of a few months and brought into the correct position of the mouth. Correction of impacted teeth may involve a minor surgical procedure performed by an oral surgeon working closely with our practice. This will allow us to then guide eruption of the impacted tooth into proper position.
Missing teeth is the absence of a tooth or teeth that should normally be present. This can be caused by trauma or lack of development.
This problem should be corrected because it can:
Depending upon the situation, the space can be closed with braces or opened for tooth replacement. A bridge or dental implant are restorative options if a space is created.
Crossbite can occur in the front and/or the sides of the mouth. One or more upper teeth bite on the inside of the lower teeth. This can occur with a single tooth or multiple teeth. Early correction of crossbite is recommended.
Crossbite should be corrected because it can:
If there is a single tooth crossbite, the tooth can be moved with braces into the correct position. In some cases, a retainer can be utilized. With multiple teeth in crossbite, the arch needs to be expanded with braces or other intra-oral appliances.
Openbite is an insufficient overlap of the teeth. It is often caused by habits such as tongue thrust, thumb sucking, or when the jaws don't grow evenly. Timing of treatment is critical to the overall success of the therapy.
Openbite can be corrected through growth modification of the jaws using braces, extrusion of the front and anterior teeth and in some cases surgical correction of the jaws. Also breaking oral habits, such as thumb sucking, will facilitate the correction of an openbite.
Overbite, also called Deep Bite, occurs when the upper front teeth protrude over the lower front teeth. Generally there is no contact between the upper and lower front teeth. Often you cannot see the lower incisors. Overbite is due to a disproportionate amount of eruption of front teeth or over development of the bone that supports the teeth and a front to back discrepancy in the growth of the upper or lower jaw (Class II Relationship). Overbite should be corrected because it can:
Overbite can be corrected through moving the front teeth up and/or bringing the back teeth together, which will "open" the bite so the teeth are properly aligned and the deep bite is eliminated.
Overjet is also known as protrusion. In this case, the lower teeth are too far behind the upper front teeth. This can be caused by an improper alignment of the molars (Class II Relationship), a skeletal imbalance of the upper and lower jaw; flared upper teeth, missing lower teeth or a combination of all the above. In addition, oral habits such as thumb sucking, finger sucking or tongue thrusting can increase the condition.
Overjet should be corrected because it can:
Overjet can be corrected through growth modification using a functional appliance and/or elastics to reduce the skeletal imbalance. In extreme cases, extraction of teeth may be required.
This is when the lower teeth protrude past the top front teeth. An underbite is usually caused by undergrowth of the upper jaw, overgrowth of the lower jaw, or a combination of the two (Class III Relationship). Underbite can also be caused by flared upper incisors, missing lower teeth or a combination of all the above. Early correction of underbite is recommended.
Underbite should be corrected because it can:
Underbite can be corrected through growth modification of the jaws, extraction of teeth and in some cases, surgical correction of the jaws..